نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی پژوهشگاه علوم و فناوری اطلاعات ایران (ایرانداک)

2 عضو هیئت علمی پژوهشگاه علوم و فناوری اطلاعات ایران (ایرانداک)

چکیده

Background and Objectives: Commercialization of research is a process that transforms the knowledge produced in universities and research institutes into marketable products or services. Given its importance in higher education, commercialization of research has recently attracted the attention of policymakers in Iran. This study was thus intended to design effective strategies for commercialization of research in Iranian research institutes by identifying the drivers and barriers to its implementation. Moreover, it was attempted to formulate the commercialization strategies for the Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc) based on the identified drivers and barriers.
Methodology: Based on the data of interviews with 30 IranDoc experts, the drivers and barriers to commercialization in Iranian research institutes were identified and then categorized into internal factors (i.e., strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (i.e., opportunities and threats) using the definitions of strength (S), weakness (W), opportunity (O) and threat (T). In order to complete the list of factors, the researchers asked the IranDoc experts to comment on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of commercialization in IranDoc using a questionnaire. Afterwards, SWOT matrix was used to formulate appropriate strategies for IranDoc.
Findings: Based on the findings, four strategy groups including defensive strategies (WT), competitive strategies (ST), conservative strategies (WO), and aggressive strategies (SO) were identified for the implementation of commercialization in IranDoc. Besides, the analysis of the internal-external factor evaluation (IE) matrix revealed that WT group strategies and ST group strategies were the first and second priorities for the commercialization of research findings in IranDoc, respectively. It is thus recommended that IranDoc apply defensive strategies (WT) in order to decrease the weaknesses and avoid the threats (WT) of commercialization of research findings. These strategies include conducting joint research and development projects, empowering researchers, managing knowledge flow, increasing the motivation of researchers to commercialize their research findings, and also attracting support from the industry sector and other organizations.
Discussion: In order to formulate an effective strategy for commercialization of research findings, it is imperative that the experts and policymakers gain an accurate understanding of the important factors (i.e., drivers and barriers) for research commercialization in research institutes. It is thus suggested that the commercialization strategies of IranDoc be developed based on the list of identified drivers and barriers to research commercialization in Iran. It is hoped that the formulated research commercialization strategies for IranDoc contribute to the commercialization of research products in other similar research centers in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Strategic Planning for Commercialization of Research Findings in Iran: The Case Study of IranDoc

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leila Namdarian 1
  • Ali Naimi-Sadigh 2

1 Assistant professor in science and technology policy, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc), Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant professor in industrial engineering, Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc), Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Abstract                                                      
Background and Objectives: Commercialization of research is a process that transforms the knowledge produced in universities and research institutes into marketable products or services. Given its importance in higher education, commercialization of research has recently attracted the attention of policymakers in Iran. This study was thus intended to design effective strategies for commercialization of research in Iranian research institutes by identifying the drivers and barriers to its implementation. Moreover, it was attempted to formulate the commercialization strategies for the Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (IranDoc) based on the identified drivers and barriers.
Methodology: Based on the data of interviews with 30 IranDoc experts, the drivers and barriers to commercialization in Iranian research institutes were identified and then categorized into internal factors (i.e., strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (i.e., opportunities and threats) using the definitions of strength (S), weakness (W), opportunity (O) and threat (T). In order to complete the list of factors, the researchers asked the IranDoc experts to comment on the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of commercialization in IranDoc using a questionnaire. Afterwards, SWOT matrix was used to formulate appropriate strategies for IranDoc.
Findings: Based on the findings, four strategy groups including defensive strategies (WT), competitive strategies (ST), conservative strategies (WO), and aggressive strategies (SO) were identified for the implementation of commercialization in IranDoc. Besides, the analysis of the internal-external factor evaluation (IE) matrix revealed that WT group strategies and ST group strategies were the first and second priorities for the commercialization of research findings in IranDoc, respectively. It is thus recommended that IranDoc apply defensive strategies (WT) in order to decrease the weaknesses and avoid the threats (WT) of commercialization of research findings. These strategies include conducting joint research and development projects, empowering researchers, managing knowledge flow, increasing the motivation of researchers to commercialize their research findings, and also attracting support from the industry sector and other organizations.
Discussion: In order to formulate an effective strategy for commercialization of research findings, it is imperative that the experts and policymakers gain an accurate understanding of the important factors (i.e., drivers and barriers) for research commercialization in research institutes. It is thus suggested that the commercialization strategies of IranDoc be developed based on the list of identified drivers and barriers to research commercialization in Iran. It is hoped that the formulated research commercialization strategies for IranDoc contribute to the commercialization of research products in other similar research centers in Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Commercialization
  • Strategic Planning
  • SWOT
  • Research institutes
  • IRANDOC
Abreu, M. and Grinevich, V., 2013. The nature of academic entrepreneurship in the UK: Widening the focus on entrepreneurial activities. Research Policy42(2), pp.408-422. Abreu, M., & Grinevich, V. (2013). The nature of academic entrepreneurship in the UK: Widening the focus on entrepreneurial activities. Research Policy42(2), 408-422.
Al Natsheh, A., Gbadegeshin, S. A., Rimpiläinen, A., Imamovic-Tokalic, I., & Zambrano, A. (2015). Identifying the challenges in commercializing high technology: A case study of quantum key distribution technology. Technology Innovation Management Review5(1), 26-36.
Audretsch, D. B. (2012, March). Determinants of high-growth entrepreneurship. In Report prepared for the OECD/DBA International Workshop on “High-Growth Firms: local policies and local determinants.
Bakhtiar, A., Aslani, A., & Hosseini, S. M. (2020). Challenges of diffusion and commercialization of bioenergy in developing countries. Renewable energy145, 1780-1798.
Bandarian, R., (2008). Measuring Commercial Potential of Technology with fuzzy Logic. Journal of science and technology policy, 1(1), 15-24.
Barclay, I. (1992). The new product development process: past evidence and future practical application, Part 1. R&D Management22(3), 255-264.
Bercovitz, J. and Feldman, M., (2004). Academic entrepreneurs: Social learning and participation in university technology transfer. Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota.
Biemans, W. G., & Harmsen, H. (1995). Overcoming the barriers to market‐oriented product development. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 1(2), 7-25.
Block, J. H., Henkel, J., Schweisfurth, T. G., & Stiegler, A. (2016). Commercializing user innovations by vertical diversification: The user–manufacturer innovator. Research Policy45(1), 244-259.
Braun, M., Brown, D., Graf, G., Leroyer, J., Sabisch, H., Meissner, D., Rouach, D., Santi, P. (2004). Getting more innovation from public research. European commission.
Bulsara, H.P., Gandhi, S. and Porey, P.D. (2010). Commercialization of technology innovations and patents: issue and challenges. Available at: http://www.techmonitor.net/tm/images/7/77/10nov_dec_sf1.pdf (Accessed on 27 January, 2021).
David, F.R. (2011). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, New Jersey: Pretince Hall.
Debackere, K., & Veugelers, R. (2005). The role of academic technology transfer organizations in improving industry science links. Research policy34(3), 321-342.
Di Gregorio, D., & Shane, S. (2003). Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others? Research policy32(2), 209-227.
Dominguez-Vargas, G., & Camacho-Velazquez, R. (2001, January). Continuing Education Needs in Exploration and Production. In SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Downie, J. (2005). The power of money: Commercialisation of research conducted in public institutions. Otago L. Rev.11, 305.
Funk, S.G., Tornquist, E.M. and Champagne, M.T. (1995). Barriers and facilitators of research utilization. Nursing Clinics of North America30(3), 395-407.
Gans, J. S., & Stern, S. (2003). The product market and the market for “ideas”: commercialization strategies for technology entrepreneurs. Research policy32(2), 333-350.
Göktepe, D. (2008). University Inventors and University Patenting Patterns at Lund University: Conceptual-Methodological & Empirical Insights.
Henderson, R., Jaffe, A. B., & Trajtenberg, M. (1998). Universities as a source of commercial technology: a detailed analysis of university patenting, 1965–1988. Review of Economics and statistics80(1), 119-127.
Henrekson, M., & Rosenberg, N. (2001). Designing efficient institutions for science-based entrepreneurship: Lesson from the US and Sweden. The journal of technology transfer26(3), 207-231.
Howells, J. and McKinlay, C. (1999). Commercialisation of university research in Europe. Expert Panel on the Commercialization of University Research.
Jensen, R., & Thursby, M. (2001). Proofs and prototypes for sale: The licensing of university inventions. American Economic Review91(1), 240-259.
Kaarela, M. (2013, June). Challenges of technology commercialization: Lessons from Finnish-Russian innovation alliance on nanotechnology. In Proceedings from the EuroNanoforum 2013 Workshop on Technology Commercialization (pp. 18-20).
Kirchberger, M. A., & Pohl, L. (2016). Technology commercialization: a literature review of success factors and antecedents across different contexts. The Journal of Technology Transfer41(5), 1077-1112.
Mahjoom, M. S., Isfahani, A. M., Kordnaeij, A., & Hosseini, S. H. K. (2019). Barriers to the Commercialization of Civilian Space Technology in Iran. Space Policy49, 101319.
Maurseth, P. B., & Svensson, R. (2020). The Importance of Tacit Knowledge: Dynamic Inventor Activity in the Commercialization Phase. Research Policy49(7), doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2020.104003.
Meijer, L. L. J., Huijben, J. C. C. M., Van Boxstael, A., & Romme, A. G. L. (2019). Barriers and drivers for technology commercialization by SMEs in the Dutch sustainable energy sector. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews112, 114-126.
Min, J. W., Kim, Y., & Vonortas, N. S. (2020). Public technology transfer, commercialization and business growth. European Economic Review124, 103407.
Mohmoudpour, B., Rahimiyan, H., Abaspour, A., Delavar, A. (2012). Analysis of challenges facing the commercialization of human science research and provide a context-based theory. Journal of Innovation and Creativity in Human Science, 2(2), 19-48.
Mortazavi Ravari, S.S., Mehrabanfar, E., Banaitis, A. and Banaitienė, N. (2016). Framework for assessing technological innovation capability in research and technology organizations. Journal of Business Economics and Management17(6), 825-847.
Morricone, S., Munari, F., Oriani, R., & De Rassenfosse, G. (2017). Commercialization strategy and IPO underpricing. Research Policy46(6), 1133-1141.
Meyer, M., & Kearnes, M. (2013). Introduction to special section: Intermediaries between science, policy and the market. Science and Public Policy40(4), 423-429.
McMurtry, J.M.( 2003). Big business marketing for small business budgets. McGraw Hill Professional.
O'shea, R. P., Allen, T. J., Chevalier, A., & Roche, F. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spinoff performance of US universities. Research policy34(7), 994-1009.
Namdarian, L., & Naimi-Sadigh, A. (2018a). Towards an understanding of the commercialization drivers of research findings in Iran. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development10(4), 389-399.
Namdarian, L., & Naimi-Sadigh, A. (2018b). Barriers to commercialization of research findings in humanities in Iran. Iranian Journal of Management Studies11(3), 487-518.
Namdarian, L., Sajedinejad, A., & Bahanesteh, S. (2020). The Impact of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Study. AD-minster, 37 (12), 85-108.
Pellikka, J., Kajanus, M., Heinonen, M. and Eskelinen, T. (2012). Overcoming challenges in commercialization process of the product innovation. In ISPIM Conference Proceedings (p. 1). The International Society for Professional Innovation Management (ISPIM).
Perkmann, M., Tartari, V., McKelvey, M., Autio, E., Broström, A., D’este, P., & Sobrero, M. (2013). Academic engagement and commercialisation: A review of the literature on university–industry relations. Research policy42(2), 423-442.
Rabie, N., Karimi, F., & Sadigh, A. (2016). The effect of transformational leadership style and organizational culture on the formation of organizational cynicism in the Agricultural Bank of Tehran. Management Science Letters6(6), 443-454.
Rank, D. and Brochu, M. (1999). Issues with respect to commercializing Canadian university research. Expert Panel on the Commercialization of University Research.
Rasmussen, E., Moen, Ø. and Gulbrandsen, M., 2006. Initiatives to promote commercialization of university knowledge. Techn Rasmussen, E., Moen, Ø., & Gulbrandsen, M. (2006). Initiatives to promote commercialization of university knowledge. Technovation26(4), 518-533.
Ovation26(4), pp.518-533.
Samsom, K. J., & Gurdon, M. A. (1993). University scientists as entrepreneurs: a special case of technology transfer and high-tech venturing. Technovation13(2), 63-71
Shane, S.A. (2004). Academic entrepreneurship: University spinoffs and wealth creation. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Siegel, D.S. and Phan, P.H. (2005). Analyzing the effectiveness of university technology transfer: implications for entrepreneurship education. In University entrepreneurship and technology transfer (pp. 1-38). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Siegel, D. S., Waldman, D. A., Atwater, L. E., & Link, A. N. (2004). Toward a model of the effective transfer of scientific knowledge from academicians to practitioners: qualitative evidence from the commercialization of university technologies. Journal of engineering and technology management21(1-2), 115-142.
Smith, D. (2020). The Effects of Federal Research and Development Subsidies on Firm Commercialization Behavior. Research Policy49(7), doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2020.104003.
Spilling, O.R. (2004, June). Commercialization of knowledge–conceptual framework. In 13th Nordic Conference on Small Business (NCSB) Research.
Stankevičienė, J., Kraujalienė, L., & Vaiciukevičiūtė, A. (2017). Assessment of technology transfer office performance for value creation in higher education institutions. Journal of business economics and management18(6), 1063-1081.
Stuart, T. E. (2000). Interorganizational alliances and the performance of firms: a study of growth and innovation rates in a high‐technology industry. Strategic management journal21(8), 791-811.
Symeonidou, N., Bruneel, J., & Autio, E. (2017). Commercialization strategy and internationalization outcomes in technology-based new ventures. Journal of Business Venturing32(3), 302-317.
Tahvanainen, A.J. and Nikulainen, T. (2011). Commercialization at Finnish universities: Researchers' perspectives on the motives and challenges of turning science into business (No. 1234). ETLA discussion paper.
Tunčikienė, Ž., & Drejeris, R. (2017). Assessment of business conditions benevolence: case of occupational safety and health services. Journal of Business Economics and Management18(3), 505-520.
Winchell, D. A. (1984). U.S. Patent No. 4,474,016. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.