هدف: هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر پذیرش و به کارگیری فناوریهای اطلاعات موجود در کتابخانههای دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد به منظور ارائه الگویی مناسب برای آن بود.
روش شناسی: روش پژوهش پیمایشی تحلیلی است. نمونهگیری با روش تصادفی طبقهای نسبتی با دو نمونه 201 و 373 نفری برای دو مرحله تحلیل عاملی و تحلیل مسیر از جامعه 12538 نفری اعضای هیأت علمی و دانشجویان تحصیلات تکمیلی نیمسال دوم 1392 انجام شده است. ابزار پیمایش پرسشنامهای محقق ساخته بود و روایی ظاهری آن توسط اعضای هیأت علمی رشته علم اطلاعات و دانششناسی دانشگاه فردوسی و روایی درونی آن با استفاده از ماتریس همبستگی پرماکس در تحلیل عاملی سنجیده شد.
یافتهها: در مرحله نخست، حدود 62.7 درصد پاسخگویان مردان و بقیه زنان بودند. ابتدا پیشفرضهای تحلیل عاملی (دادههای گمشده، دادههای پرت و همخطی، نرمال بودن توزیع و رابطه خطی) بررسی و دادهها آمادهسازی شد. نتایج تحلیل عاملی روی 201 نفر افراد نمونه در مرحله نخست نشان داد شاخص نیکویی برازش (GFI) در مرحله تحلیل عاملی با مقادیر 92/0 برای مدل یکپارچه پذیرش و استفاده از فناوری و 94/0 برای مدل تناسب وظیفه فناوری، نشان از برازش کافی مدلهای مورد استفاده با جامعه مورد مطالعه داشت.
نتیجهگیری: یافتهها نشان داد شاخصهای استخراجی از ماتریس مورب چرخش یافته همبستگی در مرحله تحلیل مسیر، منجر به مدلی بومیسازی شد. شاخص ریشه دوم میانگین خطای برآورد (RMSEA) با مقادیر 037/0 برای مدل کاربرد فناوری و 023/0 برای مدل پذیرش فناوری نیز نشان از معنیداری بارهای عاملی و ضرایب مسیر مدلهای مورد استفاده و قدرت پیشبینی بالای این مدلها داشت که امکان ایجاد مدلی راهبردی را فراهم میآورد. ترکیب یافتههای تحلیل مسیر مدلی بومیسازی شده و راهبردی را ارائه کرد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Factors influencing acceptance and use of information technologies by users of academic libraries in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad based on UTAUT and TTF models
Background and Objectives: : Information technology is one of the most important management tools that affect a variety of organizations, including the library, in our era. This part of the information industry is rapidly expanding, but with proper management and precise planning via it, one may provide the library with much added value. In order to prepare a strategic plan for the use of information technology in libraries, we should examine the governing model on the use of information technology dimensions, ie, the acceptance and use patterns of information technology in the library, which suggests the current conditions of the library. About the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM) libraries, it is not clear which factors have the most impact on the faculty members and graduate students' acceptance and use of information technology? What is the status of the information technology acceptance and use in the population and what is the best model for predicting information technology acceptance and application? To achieve the localized strategic pattern to help to formulate a strategic program, by identifying factors influencing the acceptance and use of technology in FUM libraries was the main purpose of the research.
Methodology: It was an analytical survey. The population included all the faculty members and postgraduate students studying in the second half of 2013, who used the FUM libraries, the total population of the study was 12538 people. Stratified random sampling method was used and two samples of 201 and 373 were selected for two stages of factor analysis and path analysis. The first sample for the factor analysis was to confirm the fitness of the model, confirming the validity of the construct of the tools and identifying the effective factors. The second sample included 373 people for the path analysis and measuring the effect of each factor on the use of information technology applying. The random stratified sampling was used with two samples of 201 and 373 people for two phases, factor analysis and path analysis from a population of 12538 members of FUM. The data gathered by a questionnaire in 2 phases. The face validity of the questionnaire was approved by some KIS faculty members. The Internal validity of the original questionnaire was approved by using Promax correlation matrix in factor analysis method. The observed variables related to measuring the latent variables were technology use, technology characteristics, task characteristics, Task-Technology Fit (TTF), and personal capability. The observed variables regarding measuring the latent variable of the acceptance technology included the prediction of performance, prediction of effort, social influence, facilitating conditions and behavioral tendencies. Two questionnaires were used in the study. The first questionnaire was developed after the extraction of some factors from the theoretical foundations and the literature. It was prepared as a researcher-made questionnaire. The second questionnaire was extracted after the analysis of the first questionnaire. In the study, two statistical models have been used based on the theories of TTF and the UTAUT as the base model. Regarding to the fact that the qualitative and strategic management approach dominated the study, path analysis was used. The confirmatory factor analysis was used to be informed of the coverage of all dimensions of the model and the maximum fitness of the model used before the path analysis.
Findings: In the first stage, most of the respondents were from the Faculty of Agriculture and the least of them were from the Faculty of Theology. About 62.7% of the respondents were male. In the following, factor analysis assumptions (missing data, outliers and collinearity, normality, and linear relationship between variables) were evaluated and data were prepared. In this case, missing data and outliers (between 1 to 100) were not analyzed. In order to measure the collinearity of the tolerance and VIF coefficients, SPSS20 was used. The tolerance coefficients for contact numbers, scientific databases, directories, and e-mails showed a serious decline. The VIF for contact numbers was more than 1.5 and had a collinearity with another indicator because its Eigenvalue and condition index were respectively 0.016 and 29.36. After the examining, it became clear that the contact numbers had the most internal consistency with the e-mail, so they were summarized in a new indicator entitled the contact ways. The indicators of the collinearity recognition of the indicators of the information process and needed trainings were close to the critical level. They had the highest correlation with each other, so were summarized in a new indicator called training and informing. To solve the problem of normality, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests were used to normalize the data. In order to know the linearity of the correlation, multiple regressions were used t and this precondition was also satisfied. After satisfying the assumptions of the confirmatory factor analysis (checking missing data, outliers, collinearity test, normality, linearity of the relationship of variables) in SPSS, confirmatory factor analysis was performed to confirm the goodness of fitting the models used in the population, using diagonal correlation matrix and goodness index of fitness in LISREL. The results of the factor analysis on 201 respondents in the first stage showed that in factor analysis phase, GIF with 0.92 for the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of technology and with 0.94 for the Task-Technology Fit theory was fit to the research population. After verifying the confirmatory factor analysis and ensuring that the chosen model could cover all aspects of the phenomenon of using information technology and not revealing additional dimensions that were not appropriate to the population, as well as reaching the model that had the maximum fitness for the population, the second stage or path analysis was used to test the hypothesis. In the second phase, 357 people were surveyed. The most were from the Faculty of Science and the least of them were from the Faculty of Physical Education. 67% of them were male and the rest were women. The mean age of responders was 29 years and the max and minimum were respectively 53 23 years. According to the results of the path analysis, the fitness index of the RMSEA for both models was less than the critical value of 0.08 (for TTF model equal to 0.073 and for the technology acceptance model equal to 0.023). As mentioned, the significance of the coefficients of the models was also higher than 0.05. As a result, the zero hypotesis was rejected, which implies the lack of goodness of fitting the models, and the lack of significance of the path coefficients and factor loadings. The hypothesis was based on the significance of the coefficients and factor loadings, and it was determined that the used models were the ability to predict the factors of the use of technology, ie, technology use and acceptance, in the population. In other words, by fitting the models used, a localized model was found that factor loadings and its path coefficients were of enough significance. This meant that the models used in the population were a high predictor to achieve a strategic model.
Discussion: The results indicated that the use of information technology in libraries is more focused on the task, which is to meet the information needs, and can see the fact in the variable in satisfying the information needs along with the characteristics of the task as an effective factor in the use of information technology. But the result also suggests that the technology available in the library is unattractive that can be considered as a factor in technology use. This means that there is a link between the concepts of the technology acceptance and use, because, as noted, there was a low impact of the facilitating conditions such as hardware and software technology acceptance in the population. Today, with the advent of various types of technology, especially in libraries, the users' focus and attention have shifted from technology to the use of technology to meet their information needs.