نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی موسسه پژوهش و برنامه ریزی آموزش عالی

چکیده

هدف: پژوهش حاضر با هدف ارایه الگویی برای ایجاد و بهبود شبکه تبادل دانش ضمنی در آموزش عالی کشور انجام شده است.
روش: این مطالعه با روش ترکیبی انجام شده است. ابزار جمع آوری اطلاعات در بخش کیفی مصاحبه‏های نیمه ساختاریافته بود که بر اساس نمونه‏گیری نظری، مشارکت کنندگان از میان خبرگان تجربی آموزش عالی، خبرگان نظری و خبرگان حوزه مستند سازی تجربیات به صورت هدفمند انتخاب شدند. روش تحلیل بخش کیفی روش تماتیک بود. برای حصول اطمینان از روایی مرحله نخست پژوهش، از نظر مشارکت‌کنندگان پژوهش، بررسی همکار و در نهایت بازاندیشی پژوهشگر استفاده شد. برای محاسبه پایایی کدگذاری های انجام شده، از روش پایایی باز آزمون و روش پایایی توافق بین دو کد گذار استفاده شد. در بخش کمی پژوهش، جامعه آماری عبارت بود از کلیه روسا و معاونان و مسولان دفاتر روسا و معاونان و مسئولین روابط عمومی پژوهشکده ها و موسسات پژوهشی تحت پوشش وزارت علوم تحقیقات و فناوری که برای انجام این مطالعه از سرشماری استفاده گردید. ابزارگردآوری داده های مورد نیاز بخش کمی، پرسشنامه محقق ساخته بود که برای روایی محتوایی، پرسشنامه در اختیار تعدادی از خبرگان و صاحب نظران و اساتید قرار گرفت و پس از اعمال نظرات اصلاحی آنان، مورد بهره برداری قرار گرفت. برای سنجش پایایی ابزار اندازه گیری از ضریب آلفای کرونباخ استفاده گردید. در بخش کمّی برای تحلیل داده‌های گردآوری شده از روش‌های آماری توصیفی و آمار استنباطی استفاده گردید.
یافته ها: یافته های پژوهش حاکی از آن بود که چهار مرحله اساسی در فرایند ایجاد شبکه تبادل دانش و تجارب و مستندسازی تجربیات سازمانی روسا ومعاونان پژوهشکده ها و موسسات پژوهشی کشور نقش دارند که ستون اصلی الگوی مربوطه را شکل می دهند این مراحل عبارتند از: سیاست گذاری مستند سازی؛ برنامه ریزی مستند سازی؛ اجرای مستند سازی؛ پایش، کنترل، تسهیم. در نهایت، خروجی پژوهش در قالب الگوی مستند سازی تجربیات سازمانی ارایه شد.
نتیجه گیری: برای ایجاد و بهبود شبکه تبادل دانش ضمنی در آموزش عالی و مستند سازی تجربیات باید سیاست های سازمانی و فرا سازمانی مورد بررسی و کنکاش واقع شده و در صورت لزوم اصلاح گردند. همچنین چرخه مستند سازی یک تجربه و عمر شبکه تبادل دانش ضمنی هیچ گاه پایان نمی یابد و همواره مورد بازبینی و اصلاح قرار می گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Establishing and Improving of Tacit Knowledge Sharing Network in Higher Education

نویسنده [English]

  • asghar zamani

Assistant Professor, Department of Higher Education Management Studies, Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education.

چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: In today’s knowledge society, it is vital to use the experiences gained by directors and chancellors of organizations and their experts for success and educate new directors. But unfortunately, in higher education and especially in research centers and institutes, despite the important role of experience, documentation of experiences and the tacit knowledge are neglected for several reasons such as: lack of culture of writing, vagueness of the concept of organizational experience, lack of a proper method for documentation and sharing it, and lack of legal and supportive infrastructure. Accordingly, efforts should be made to extract accumulated knowledge in the minds of Chancellors and deputies of research centers and institutes, by documentation of experiences.  So, it will be possible to share knowledge and experience among new Chancellors and deputies. Therefore, the knowledge stored in research centers and institutes become a permanent usable resource. This study aimed to provide a model for establishing and improving of tacit knowledge sharing network in higher education.
 
Methodology: This research was developmental and applied research. In this research, according to the subject and nature of the research, the research method was exploratory mixed method and. Therefore, this research began with a qualitative method and continued with the quantitative method for the generalization of the findings to the statistical population. In qualitative section, interview was used for data gathering. The questions of interview selected through literature review and consultation with some experts. It is notable that the interviews were semi-structured. Participants in qualitative section were experienced experts (Chancellors and deputies of research centers and institutes), theoretical experts (experts in the field of higher education), and experts in the field of experiences documentation. Some participants were experts in two or three fields of expertise. After implementing the interviews, an open coding method was used to analyze the qualitative data. Then, by calculating the reliability and validity, based on the gathered data, a questionnaire was developed. In the next phase, validity and reliability (by calculating Cronbach’s alpha) of questionnaire were confirmed and the questionnaire sent to the statistical population of the study (including all Chancellors and deputies, Heads of Offices of Chancellors and deputies, and Heads of Public Relations in research centers and institutes affiliated by the Ministry of Science and Technology and Research). Also, in quantitative phase, descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyze the collected data.
 
Findings: One objective of study was to establish and improve the tacit knowledge sharing network in higher education. The other objective was to develop a model for documentation of experiences of chancellors and deputies of research centers and institutes in Iran. The findings indicated that four basic steps were involved in the process of establishing a knowledge sharing network and experiences and documenting organizational experiences of research institutes chancellors, which were the main pillar of the model.
According to the results, the model had four factors including: documentation policy-making, documentation planning, documentation implementation, and monitoring, control, and sharing. The factors divided to 11 steps and 31 activities. Each activities complete one-step in the process. The model had a circle form to show that there was no stopping point in documenting experiences and at the moment the documentation of the experiences was completed and shared, a new stage of documentation of experiences begin to complete the previous experiences.
 
Discussion: To document experiences in higher education, organizational and extra organizational policies should be reviewed and amended as necessary. Also, the documentation cycle of an experience never ends and is always reviewed and modified. In the issue of documenting experiences and sharing them, we are confronted with two related issues. But both have common prerequisites. The prerequisite for documenting organizational experiences and sharing tacit knowledge and experience in Iranian research institutes and centers includes: academic policy, legal support, organizational climate, academic culture, and individual culture. Research institutes and centers need policy and legal infrastructure to create contexts for documenting experiences and implicit knowledge sharing. Accordingly, efforts should be made to extract accumulated knowledge in the minds of Chancellors and deputies of research centers and institutes, by documentation of experiences. So, it will be possible to share knowledge and experience among new Chancellors and deputies. Therefore, the knowledge stored in research centers and institutes become a permanent usable resource. If Ministry of Science, Research and Technology would like to document organizational experiences, and to avoid trial and error at research institutions, it is suggested that the real will for documentation of experiences be developed in Higher Education Directors. Also, policy and legal and judicial issues in this regard be developed. It is suggested that the issue of documentation of organizational experience be included in the appointment of all chancellors of research institutions. Through the Board of Trustees, the subject of documentation of organizational experiences is cited as mission or vision. Finally, it is suggested to set up supportive and incentive laws (such as financial or spiritual, promotion laws, etc.) to support documentary makers and users of experiences.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Tacit Knowledge Exchange Network
  • Experience Documentation
  • organizational experience
  • Research Centers and Institutes
  • Higher Education